A Turkish Delight

Turkey in the Modern Variant

Vincent Mous

Table of Contents


Welcome to the eleventh article in my continuing series about the Modern variant. In the first article you got an introduction to the modern variant, as well as some information on how to get started playing it. In the next six articles I discussed the opening strategies for Britain, Egypt, France, Germany And Italy. Then, I took a break and conducted a review of those six articles, before continuing with Poland, Russia and Spain.

In this article, I examine the position and opening choices of Turkey, the bridge between Europe and Asia, and a country which has been a major influence in Europe in the past, and could be again. You might be familiar with playing Turkey in vanilla dip–a defensive, corner power with reasonable prospects in the Balkans, and especially feared when allied with Russia to form a 'juggernaut'. In Modern, Turkey is still positioned on the SC rich Balkans, but has a more challenging position. Turkey now has two neighbours on the Black Sea instead of one, a new neighbour in the Eastern Med, occupying the corner instead of Turkey, and the Middle-East has become a potential battleground. All these new elements make Turkish position both more dangerous and more promising than in vanilla dip, and in my opinion, also more challenging and interesting to play.

"Marks out of 10 for potential (no-press)
Italy - 10
Britain - 9
Egypt - 8
Turkey - 7
Spain - 6
Poland - 5
Germany - 3
France - 2
Russia - 1"–Toby Tyrrell

Recently Finished Modern Games

Normally, I look at the recently finished modern games, but instead, I will point you to the Modern homepage where you can always find the latest information. Suffice it to say that Spain continues its domination of 1998, almost surpassing Ukraine overall. Also of note are Chris Fridrich's solo victories as both Britain and France, meaning that there now have been victories with all powers in Modern!

Anyhow, on to the article itself. I'll be looking at Turkish openings and strategies, and will then, as usual include a section of player comments on Turkish in Modern.

Statistics on Use of the Turkish Openings

Modern Games in Progress

GameOpening UsedYearSC'sPlacement
euro98The Dervish2007211st
modhof97Black Sea Offer2002171st
norm7Anatolian Defense (Baghdad V.)2024161st
citroenGokturk Attack1999131st
calcuttaSouthern Karahan1999111st
macbethGeorgian Push199691st
rushGeorgian Push199681st
halidayBalkan Push (Iranian Var.)2003111st tied
laertesMurat IV1998101st tied
heuteBlack Sea Takeover199791st tied
modt97fThe Dervish2015172nd
zooropeGeorgian Push1998102nd
opheliaSeljuk Strike (Persian Variant)199992nd tied
zwoelfteGeorgian Push199992nd tied
hamletGeorgian Hammer199872nd tied
danubeBalkan Gambit199542nd tied
plasticsSuleiman the Magnificent199542nd tied
rheinByzantine Resurrection199542nd tied
roam2The Dervish (Persian Variant)199542nd tied
disorderKarahan2007103rd tied
delhiByzantine Resurrection200393rd tied
rhinSeljuk Strike 199873rd tied
fiatSuleiman the Magnificent (Persian Variant)199663rd tied
appleGeorgian Push2012104th
bombay2Balkan Gambit200074th tied
ww3Karahan200174th tied
earThe Dervish200166th tied
atKarahan200056th tied
krushSouthern Karahan199856th tied
reaganGeorgian Hammer200217th tied
galiciaByzantine Resurrection199848th tied
vivaldiGeorgian Push199848th tied
quiterigSeljuk Strike 199918th tied
mercedesOttoman Octopus199859th tied
bangalorSeljuk Strike 2000 elim.
bombayOttoman Octopus2004 elim.
censoredGeorgian Push2012 elim.
crazyInonu Incursion (Persian Var.)2011 elim.
karnajMarmara Alliance1999 elim.
modjan98Eastern Gamble2011 elim.
norm11Turkish Bazaar2016 elim.
ptolemyAtaturk2006 elim.
samBosphorus Blockade2003 elim.
unThe Dervish2004 elim.
uraniumKarahan2002 elim.
zeoliteBarbarossa2006 elim.
zwoelfaSeljuk Strike 2011 elim.

Finished Games - Turkish Win or Draw

GameOpening UsedResult/Year# SCsPlacement
lie2meNato StrikeT 2007421st
liarliarGeorgian PushT 2007411st
woodruffOttoman OctopusT 2013341st
un_varSuleiman the MagnificentFPT 2011281st
euro97Double OttomanEFT 2017241st
euro95KarahanERT 2023222nd
minskMehmet the ConquerorGTU 2019212nd
modhof96Georgian HammerFGT 2003202nd tied
perotThe DervishFPT 2018173rd
lyonBalkan PushBPST 2011261st
cairoMehmet the ConquerorIPST 2009162nd
desireKarahan (Iranian Variant)GSTU 2008152nd
todayThe DervishFRST 2007163rd
katrasSeljuk Strike (Persian Variant) BIPT 2012143rd
gdanskDouble OttomanGIRT 2014133rd
norwayOttoman OctopusBFTU 202083rd
therockGeorgian PushEGISTU 2010152nd

Finished Games - Turkish Loss

GameOpening UsedResult/Year# SCsPlacement
milosGeorgian PushS 2010272nd
modt97dInonu Incursion (Baghdad Var.) B 2017202nd
peterByzantine ResurrectionG 2006172nd
beneschSuleiman the MagnificentG 2007112nd
spartikuAtaturkP 200424th tied
modt97cInonu Incursion (Persian Var.) F 201614th tied
modsquadGeorgian PushU 200915th
day2dayInonu Incursion (Baghdad Var.) R 200717th
ableMurat IV (Armenian Variant)I 2015 elim.
academy4Georgian PushEIS 2009 elim.
auroraBalkan Push (Iranian Var.)R 2009 elim.
blitzzGokturk AttackBEP 2017 elim.
bogardanGeorgian AllianceBFU 2009 elim.
brakerMarmora AllianceBIPSU 2013 elim.
buchananEastern GambleBEPSU 2022 elim.
deleriumOttoman OctopusE 2008 elim.
despairMid-East WarFIR 2012 elim.
detailsBalkan GambitU 2023 elim.
dickensBalkan PushEFG 2015 elim.
ericByzantine ResurrectionEGU 2009 elim.
euro96Barbarossa (Ankaran Variant)EFP 2017 elim.
frontlinGeorgian PushBEU 2013 elim.
gun1994Seljuk Strike G 2009 elim.
halliganBalkan GambitBEFSU 2017 elim.
hamburgInonu Incursion (Baghdad Var.) EPSU 2016 elim.
izmirByzantine ResurrectionEIS 2005 elim.
izmir2Balkan PushS 2013 elim.
lastcoinBlack Sea TakeoverBIR 2014 elim.
marinettSeljuk Strike IU 2015 elim.
milanBalkan GambitBES 2014 elim.
modgameGeorgian HammerEPS 2017 elim.
modt97aSuleiman the MagnificentR 2015 elim.
modt97bSeljuk StrikeU 2010 elim.
modt97eGokturk AttackU 2016 elim.
naderKarahanBESU 2021 elim.
natoKarahanEGRS 2007 elim.
notfrogGeorgian PushBES 2016 elim.
nowadaysBarbarossaBSU 2015 elim.
odessaThe DervishEPS 2022 elim.
ooOttoman OctopusBFRS 2007 elim.
rostovGokturk AttackI 2015 elim.
sardGeorgian PushS 2021 elim.
sedanMoses OpeningIPRS 2012 elim.
sevilleGeorgian PushI 2014 elim.
spadesGeorgian PushERS 2015 elim.
taunt3Balkan PushBEGR 2018 elim.
thisthatSeljuk StrikeG 2004 elim.

List of Openings for Turkey in Modern

Anatolian Defense
Army Istanbul -> Bulgaria.
Fleet Izmir -> Anatolia.
Fleet Ankara -> Istanbul.

Army Adana -> Irak. (Baghdad Variant)
Army Adana -> Iran. (Persian Variant)

Turkey moves the Izmir fleet to Anatolia, sending the Ankaran fleet to take Greece instead. This move to Anatolia allows a 50/50 defense of Turkey's home SCs if Egypt moves to the Eastern Med in the spring of 1995. It also allows Turkey to have three fleets on the Eastern Med in the spring of 1996, four if the Aegean Sea fleet did not take Greece.

The move to Irak is more offensive, as it allows Turkey to take Saudi Arabia in 1995, if Egypt did not move to take it. Moving to Iran allows a defensive self-bounce in Adana in the fall though, while still taking an SC.

Army Istanbul -> Bulgaria.
Fleet Izmir -> Istanbul.
Fleet Ankara HOLD.
Army Adana -> Armenia.

Named for the founder of modern secular Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, who was also its first president from 1923 until his death in 1938.

"Mustafa Kemal Ataturk differed from the dictators of his age in two significant respects; his foreign policy was based not on expansion but on retraction of frontiers; his home policy on the foundation of a political system which could survive his own time. It was in this realistic spirit that he regenerated his country, transforming the old sprawling Ottoman Empire into a compact new Turkish Republic."–A page on Turkish history

In Modern, this opening protects Turkey's traditional zones of influence (Iran, Bulgaria, Greece, and perhaps Georgia), but without attacking any neighbour. It is also able to withstand any northern attack at little cost, and a southern move by Egypt to the Mediterranean at the cost of a build or two.

"The standard opening. This is best if your not sure what to do and don't want to upset anyone else right off."–Robert Shepard

Balkan Gambit (Mike Morzinski)
Army Istanbul -> Bulgaria.
Fleet Izmir -> Aegean Sea.
Fleet Ankara -> Western Black Sea.
Army Adana -> Armenia.

"It's sort of Turkey's answer to Austria's Balkan Gambit in the standard game, since three units head that way, leaving the homeland slightly exposed.

Since it is impossible for Turkey to keep a determined Egypt out of the Eastern Med in the first year, it is best not to try. Instead, keep Ukraine out of the Black Sea, thus preventing him from locking Turkey out of the Balkans. With the WBS either belonging to Turkey or vacant and a fleet in the Aegean, Turkey is virtually guaranteed two Balkan SCs in the first year, with a chance for a third if he makes it into the WBS.

Turkey is also guaranteed another SC in Iran. Even if Egypt takes Adana or Izmir in the fall, Turkey gets two builds and a fairly advanced position in '96. This opening works best given a solid alliance with Egypt. In a no-press game, maybe count on Egypt being slightly conservative as he searches for an ally. If I were Egypt in a regular press game, I wouldn't immediately attack Turkey without the help of Ukraine or Russia either."–Mike Morzinski

Balkan Push (Stewart Alexander)
Army Istanbul -> Bulgaria.
Fleet Izmir -> Aegean Sea.
Fleet Ankara -> Eastern Black Sea.
Army Adana -> Armenia.

Army Adana -> Iran. (Iranian Variant)

"The move is pro-Egypt, pro-Russia, and anti-Ukraine. It allows one to gain Greece, Bulgaria, and Iran in year one. Also, moving to Armenia allows for protecting against Russian movement south."–Stewart Alexander

"Ally with Egypt. Give Saudi Arabia and Israel to Egypt, and push on Russia and into the Balkans. Have a weak alliance with Ukraine, break when Russia and Italy are subdued."–Brian Morin

Army Istanbul -> Bulgaria.
Fleet Izmir -> Aegean Sea.
Fleet Ankara -> Istanbul.
Army Adana -> Iran.

Army Adana -> Ankara. (Ankaran Variant)

Barbarossa was a Turkish corsair, who captured Algiers from Spain in the 16th century, twice defeated the Italian navy, and ravaged the coasts of Greece, Italy and Spain. Turkey tries to emulate his success somewhat in this opening by moving both of its fleets west fullspeed, towards Greece and Italy. If Ukraine attacks though, the north's defense is not neglected, especially in the Ankaran variant, which delays taking Iran (until 1996) for a very strong northern defense and perhaps a fall shot at Georgia.

The Barbarossa defense assumes an early alliance with Egypt, or at least neutrality. The south can be defended, but the idea here is not to mount a quick strike to the south.

Black Sea Offer
Army Istanbul -> Bulgaria.
Fleet Izmir -> Aegean Sea.
Fleet Ankara SUPPORT Ukranian Fleet Sevastopol -> Eastern Black Sea.
Army Adana -> Iran.

Turkey sends a clear signal to Ukraine that she wants an alliance, helping Ukraine into the Eastern Black Sea where they can presumably cooperate to take on Russia in Rostov and Georgia. If that is the case, however, then perhaps moving Adana to Armenia would be wiser, so perhaps this is just a trick to get Ukraine and Russia fighting each other?

Black Sea Takeover (Robert Shepard)
Army Istanbul -> Bulgaria.
Fleet Izmir -> Istanbul.
Fleet Ankara -> Western Black Sea.
Army Adana -> Iran.

"This assumes you made Russia a temporary ally and want to attack Ukraine. You try to convince the Russians to order F Rostov -> Eastern Black Sea, and promise him he can move into Georgia next turn. You follow up by supporting yourself into Rumania and advancing your second fleet into the Black Sea region."–Robert Shepard

Bosphorus Blockade
Army Istanbul -> Bulgaria.
Fleet Izmir -> Istanbul.
Fleet Ankara -> Western Black Sea.
Army Adana -> Irak.

Turkey moves three units to spaces on or adjacent to the Bosphorus, the body of water joining the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus making sure to keep control of it. Bulgaria and Greece are sought, while the army can pick up Saudi Arabia or Iran, or move back to Adana if it is threatened by Egypt.

Byzantine Resurrection (Ketan Gangatirkar)
Army Istanbul -> Bulgaria.
Fleet Izmir -> Aegean Sea.
Fleet Ankara -> Georgia.
Army Adana -> Iran.

"The Byzantine Empire, for most of its duration, was Greece and part of the Balkans, Anatolia, and some Black Sea provinces, but no part of Syria and Irak after the 650, around the time of Muslim conquests. This opening goes for Greece, Bulgaria, Iran and a shot at Georgia, which I admit isn't historically accurate, but I like the name."–Ketan Gangatirkar

The Dervish (Tom Mowle)
Army Istanbul -> Bulgaria.
Fleet Izmir -> Eastern Mediterannean.
Fleet Ankara -> Western Black Sea.
Army Adana -> Irak.

Army Adana -> Iran. (Persian Variant)

"Turkey has so many potential openings, but they boil down to only a few that I would use. Istanbul will of course move to Bulgaria. Ankara has to move to WBS, to bounce Ukraine or gain the space (give Georgia to Russia). Izmir should move to EastMed in the hope that Egypt doesn't force the Med. Don't waste time moving to Iran initially. You can easily take it later. Move either to Syria, to support an attack on Israel, or to Iraq. If Egypt doesn't move to the Red Sea, you can then take Saudi early from Iraq. If he does, either deny it to him or move back into Iran."–Tom Mowle

"My favorite (for Gunboat). Pretty common. The goal of the opening is to protect the major seas: West Black Sea and Eastern Med. For Turkey, West Black is more important than East Black. The move to Irak is speculative, but safe."–Rick Desper

Double Ottoman (Petar Mimica)
Army Istanbul -> Bulgaria.
Fleet Izmir -> Aegean Sea.
Fleet Ankara -> Georgia.
Army Adana HOLD.

Turkey tries for Bulgaria, Greece, Georgia and Iran. A more defensive opening than the Georgian Push, the Double Ottoman does not guarantee Georgia, but it allows Turkey to defend Ankara successfully if Georgia was taken and Ukraine or Russia opened to the Black Sea. Adana itself can be defended if Egypt opened to the Eastern Med. Otherwise Iran can always be taken in the fall.

"If things go well, this ensures at least three, and probably four builds: doubling the empire."–Petar Mimica

Eastern Gamble
Army Istanbul -> Bulgaria.
Fleet Izmir -> Eastern Mediterannean.
Fleet Ankara -> Eastern Black Sea.
Army Adana -> Armenia.

A seldomly used opening that leaves Turkey open to a quick strike by Turkey via the Western Black Sea. In addition to that, only one of Bulgaria and Greece can be taken in 1995. In addition, though it seems that Turkey moves on Georgia, if Russia moves there in the spring, she will be able to retreat to Ankara in the fall. If Egypt supports herself into the Eastern Med and then tries for Adana, Turkey is in real trouble and will end up with a single build. This opening could work with a bit of luck, but there are better options with more chance of success.

Georgian Alliance
Army Istanbul -> Bulgaria.
Fleet Izmir -> Eastern Mediterannean.
Fleet Ankara SUPPORT Russian Fleet Rostov -> Georgia.
Army Adana -> Irak.

Turkey not only gives Russia Georgia, but also supports her in, sealing an alliance, presumably sending Russia against Ukraine. Ukraine should then be distracted, giving Turkey a chance to safely take out Egypt to the south. While this opening will only net Turkey two SCs, Greece should still be available in 1996. Turkey is vulnerable to an early Ukrainian attack in the Balkans though, and could lose Bulgaria in 1996.

Georgian Hammer (Ran Shlomo)
Army Istanbul -> Bulgaria.
Fleet Izmir -> Eastern Mediterannean.
Fleet Ankara -> Georgia.
Army Adana -> Armenia.

"Assuming there truly is an alliance with Ukraine, I think this should be the opening used. It provides almost ultimate safety.

If Russia opened F ros -> ebs, then Turkey can create a bounce in Ankara with army armenia and fleet georgia. If Ukraine betrayed the trust and entered the Western Black Sea, and the very likely bounce in the Eastern Med occurred, then Turkey can also bounce itself in Istanbul, and if the Bulgarian army is dislodged, it can retreat to Serbia/Greece.

The offensive posture of this opening is aimed at Georgia. If there was a bounce with the Russian in Georgia, Turkey can now support Ankara into Georgia with armenia, and still keep the good position against Egypt. If the unexpected has happened, and Turkey got Georgia, then there is a possibility to take Iran as well.

In the south, There is a good chance for a bounce with Egypt. If there was a bounce, and no-one got into the Eastern Med, then in the fall Turkey should order F izm -> aeg, in order to build two fleets in Izmir and Adana. If Turkey captured the Eastern Med, it means Egypt ordered F cai  -> isr or F cai -> red (to take Saudi Arabia). The second is more likely, and it's better for Turkey. Then, Turkey should resist the temptation to take an Egyptian home SC, and try getting into Israel (The Holy Land). In a strange kind of a way, Turkey doesn't really want to get Israel. A bounce is better for Turkey, because it leaves an Egyptian army in Cairo and only Alexandria opened to build a fleet.

If Italy has an army in Croatia, I think it is absolutely necessary to bounce Italy in Serbia, even if it means war. I noticed Italy can get to a very good start, and Turkey's best interest (IMO) is to delay Italy.

It is very important to deal with Italy early in the game. There can be a conflict already in F1995, in Serbia/Greece/Ionian. Convincing Italy to invade Libya could help a lot to the southern war.

The next stage in this opening (If Ukraine is still an ally), is to push armies through Irak and Syria, and gain control over the Eastern Med and the Libyan Sea. If Ukraine is interested, you should also try Serbia, but that is a bit risky. It's not going to be easy to overcome Egypt, but with naval advantage in the MED, and hopefully denying him of Israel, it could be possible."–Ran Shlomo

Georgian Push (Robert Shepard)
Army Istanbul -> Bulgaria.
Fleet Izmir -> Aegean Sea.
Fleet Ankara -> Georgia.
Army Adana -> Armenia.

"This assumes you made Ukraine a temporary ally and want to force Russia out the of the south. The Fleet Izmir can move to Istanbul instead, and still pick up Greece the first year, but this move offers a bit more flexibility in case of an Egyptian attack."–Robert Shepard

Gokturk Attack
Army Istanbul -> Bulgaria.
Fleet Izmir -> Eastern Mediterannean.
Fleet Ankara -> Western Black Sea.
Army Adana -> Armenia.

"Founded in 552 AD by Bumin Khan, the Gokturks engaged in widespread diplomatic activity."–The Turkish Embassy in the US

After reading that quote, I had to name an opening after the Gokturks. This one should be fitting, as it will result in frantic diplomatic activity with all Turkey's neighbours, whether before or after the moves. But fleets move into a sea space which threaten a neighbour, unless it is for an arranged bounce, and the move to Armenia will definitely get Russia's attention as well if she was looking at Georgia.

"I used this once in a no-press game. Looking back, I regret it."–Ran Shlomo

Inonu Incursion
Army Istanbul -> Bulgaria.
Fleet Izmir -> Aegean Sea.
Fleet Ankara -> Western Black Sea.

Army Adana -> Irak. (Baghdad Variant)
Army Adana -> Iran. (Persian Variant)

Ismet Inonu was the principal lieutenant of Ataturk in the post-World War I struggle for Turkish independence. Inonu was the Turkish diplomatic representative at the Lausanne Conference that overturned the wartime settlement and established the Turkish Republic in 1923. He was twice Prime Minister and later Turkey's second president.

The Inonu Incursion promises to capture both Bulgaria and Greece, while defending Turkey's Black Sea coast from Ukraine, or launching a northern offensive if the fleet makes it to the WBS. The Baghdad variant also places Turkey in a position to take Saudi Arabia, a natural Egyptian SC, if Egypt does not move for it immediately, and is therefore more balanced in its north-south approach.

"Izm -> Aeg : OK if there is a lot of trust of Egypt (not that bad even if Egypt takes the EMed).

Ank -> WBS : Good to keep Ukraine out."–Rick Desper

Army Istanbul -> Bulgaria.
Fleet Izmir -> Istanbul.
Fleet Ankara -> Georgia.
Army Adana -> Armenia.

Army Adana -> Iran. (Iranian variant)

The first Moslem Turkish state was formed by the Karahans from 990 to 1212 AD (though not in Anatolia). It seems appropriate to name this opening after them, since it turns completely away from Egypt, and leaves Turkey vulnerable to a stab from her Moslem neighbour. This is not necessarily a weak opening, as it can net Turkey four builds, and will work well with an Egyptian alliance. The Armenian variant is more popular as it gives Turkey a greater say regarding Georgia.

"Considering your Diplomacy is working, I consider this to be one of the best openings. Bulgaria is secured if you move to Istanbul (rather than the Aegean Sea as in the Georgian Push opening), but you can still take Greece in the fall and go for four! With this opening, you can get Greece, Bulgaria, Georgia and Iran the first year. The prospects for the second year depend on who will be your ally."–Mikael Akerlund

Marmara Alliance
Army Istanbul -> Greece.
Fleet Izmir -> Istanbul.
Fleet Ankara SUPPORT Ukranian Fleet Sevastopol -> Eastern Black Sea.
Army Adana -> Armenia.

The Marmara Sea lies near Istanbul, between the Bosporus and the Dardanelles. Turkey seeks an alliance against Russia with Ukraine, supporting Ukraine to the Eastern Black Sea. If Ukraine also moves to Donbas, then Rostov can be taken by Ukraine at the same time as Georgia is captured by Turkey.

Turkey hedges his bets though, by moving to Greece from Istanbul, and moving his fleet up to Istanbul from Izmir. This allows a perfect defense against Ukraine should the Ukraine not follow through on spring 1995 promises. If Ukraine acts according to his word, then the army can move north from Greece to Bulgaria, and the Istanbul fleet can take Greece, where it will be more useful in an alliance with Ukraine.

Mehmet the Conqueror
Army Istanbul -> Greece.
Fleet Izmir -> Istanbul.
Fleet Ankara -> Georgia.
Army Adana -> Armenia.

Named after Mehmet II, the Conqueror, the Ottoman Sultan who conquered Constantinople, making it the fourth Ottoman capital, and renaming it Istanbul. This opening places Turkey in a good position to move further into the Balkans, as the army can support Istanbul to Bulgaria, and then move on to Macedonia the following year to put pressure on Serbia. Georgia is also assured with the move to Armenia, and if taken in the spring, Turkey can go for four builds by taking Iran in the fall. Of course, this all assumes a friendly Egypt that did not open to the Eastern Med.

"Ist -> Gre : My preference. By taking Greece immediately, Italy's incentive for going East is reduced.

Izm -> Ist : to support self into WBS in fall? Dubious. Can take Bulgaria.

Ank -> Geo : Not bad, but it might cause problems with Russia.

Ada -> Arm : Can try for Georgia or Iran."–Rick Desper

Mid-East War (William Attia)
Army Istanbul -> Bulgaria.
Fleet Izmir -> Aegean Sea.
Fleet Ankara -> Eastern Black Sea.
Army Adana -> Irak.

"F IZM -> AEG (why risk a useless bounce in EME? Rather try for GRE if EME remains unoccupied, or try to cover IZM in the Fall if Egypt seems to be aggressive)

A ADA -> IRK (an attempt to get SAU or bounce Egypt from here; can always go to IRN)

A IST -> BUL (gets a center, and can support AEG into GRE in the fall, as well as act on SER or even go for it)

F ANK -> EBS (threatens ROS or GEO in the fall)

This opening could be used in no-press, in my opinion. It tries to convince Ukraine to ally with Turkey, so that southern Russia can be eliminated, and then Turkey can go for Egypt. Relationship with Italy is quite important too (A BUL can help to decide the fate of SER).

I would call it pro-Ukraine, anti-Egypt and rather anti-Russia. If Ukraine does not go with you, you can be down very quickly..."–William Attia

"(Similar to the Ottoman Octopus), the move to the Eastern Black Sea is more ambiguous (towards Ukraine/Russsia), as it threatens Rostov and Sevastopol."–Andrew F. Heil

Moses Opening (Rick Desper)
Army Istanbul -> Bulgaria.
Fleet Izmir -> Eastern Mediterannean.
Fleet Ankara -> Istanbul.
Army Adana -> Syria.

"Turkey tries to take Israel from the Egyptians. The fleet in Ist will move to Greece or Aegean, depending on a lot."–Rick Desper

Murat IV
Army Istanbul -> Greece.
Fleet Izmir -> Eastern Mediterannean.
Fleet Ankara -> Georgia.
Army Adana -> Irak.
Army Adana -> Armenia.

Named after Murat IV, an Ottoman Sultan who captured Baghdad. This is a mostly southern-based opening, where Bulgaria is probably not taken in 1995. The Armenian variant is less southern oriented, as it ensures Georgia before taking Iran.

Nato Strike (Rick Desper)
Army Istanbul -> Bulgaria.
Fleet Izmir -> Istanbul.
Fleet Ankara -> Eastern Black Sea.
Army Adana -> Armenia.

This opening is a bit confusing as if Russia is going to be pushed out of Georgia in the fall, then Ankara will have to be covered by the Istanbul fleet, thus giving up Greece in 1995. If Russia did not open to Georgia, then this opening makes more sense, but I believe moving Adana to Ankara instead would have been best.

"Turkey pressures Georgia and Russia's Southern flank."–Rick Desper

Ottoman Octopus (Andrew F. Heil)
Army Istanbul -> Bulgaria.
Fleet Izmir -> Aegean Sea.
Fleet Ankara -> Georgia.
Army Adana -> Irak.

"This opening puts Turkish fingers in as many pies as possible. Bulgaria is secured immediately and Greece can be taken with support in the fall, or perhaps Serbia can be contested. The southern army will likely take Iran but has the option of going for Saudi Arabia if Egypt isn't in position to bounce there and even if he is it will surely worry the Egyptian. The move to Georgia is pro-Ukrainian. The one weakness of this opening is that it lets Egypt take the Eastern Mediterranean uncontested. However, since Egypt can take it by force regardless it is perhaps best not to bother. And as the Georgian Variant will likely gain 3 and possibly 4 neutrals, an Egyptian unit in either Adana or Izmir can easily be ejected in 1996. Probably Turkey's best opening in a no-press game."–Andrew F. Heil

Seljuk Strike
Army Istanbul -> Bulgaria.
Fleet Izmir -> Eastern Mediterannean.
Fleet Ankara -> Georgia.
Army Adana -> Irak.

Army Adana -> Iran. (Persian Variant)

The Seljuk Empire was the first Turkish Empire in Anatolia, starting in 1071, and succeeded in bringing Anatolia, Irak, the southern part of the Caucasus, Azerbaijan and the north of Iran under Turkish rule. This opening goes a little further in the west, but foregoes Greece (or Bulgaria) for more involvement in the Middle-East and Caucasus.

Sinbad (Rick Desper)
Army Istanbul -> Bulgaria.
Fleet Izmir -> Eastern Mediterannean.
Fleet Ankara -> Eastern Black Sea.
Army Adana -> Irak.

"Sail the Seas!

Ist -> Bul : A common opening

Izm -> Emed : Might be wasted if Egypt supports himself into Emed.

Ank -> EBS : EBS is not quite as strong as WBS, but it is still a nice place to be. I have seen Turkey do Ank -> EBS -> Sev.

Ada -> Irak : Can try for Iran or Saudi Arabia"–Rick Desper

Southern Karahan
Army Istanbul -> Bulgaria.
Fleet Izmir -> Istanbul.
Fleet Ankara -> Georgia.
Army Adana -> Irak.

Similar to the Karahan, this sensible opening covers all bases. It tries to take both Turkey's natural Balkan SCs, while protecting Istanbul and the Black Sea coast against an early Ukrainian attack. Georgia will be taken if necessary, but the question will not be settled definitely in the spring if Russia contests it–a negotiation point is always good to have in the fall.

Unlike the Karahan, the army in Adana is moved south to Irak, an advance position from which it can threaten Saudi Arabia. This may cause Egypt some concern, but is again a useful bargaining chip to have, as the opening otherwise places no pressure on Egypt.

Suleiman the Magnificent (Tom Mowle)
Army Istanbul -> Bulgaria.
Fleet Izmir -> Eastern Mediterannean.
Fleet Ankara -> Istanbul.
Army Adana -> Irak.

Army Adana -> Iran. (Persian Variant)

Turkey moves aggressively against Egypt, with the possibility of taking Saudi Arabia, and an Egyptian home SC if Turkey makes it into the Eastern Med. In the west, Bulgaria and Greece are sought, but the Western Black Sea is left open, so Ukraine should at least be neutral. As no claim is made on Georgia, Russia is likely to take it and therefore establish a relatively strong southern presence, one that will probably be a concern to Ukraine.

"Ank -> Ist : Can be good if followed by Ist -> Gre. Brings a fleet towards Italy."–Rick Desper

Sultan's Peace (William Attia)
Army Istanbul -> Greece.
Fleet Izmir -> Eastern Mediterannean.
Fleet Ankara -> Istanbul.
Army Adana -> Iran.

"F IZM -> EME (arranged bounce with Egypt; prefers safety; if it does not bounce, call it a miracle and go for Israel or, preferably, Cairo)

A ADA -> IRN (claims Iran; may go back to ADA to cover it if Egyptian fleet in EME, thus better than IRK if guessed right; less aggressive too)

A IST -> GRE (prepares A GRE S F IST -> BUL in Fall)

F ANK -> IST (maybe too tempting for Ukraine; try to arrange a bounce between U and R in EBS in the Spring maybe; ANK -> WBS is better, but risks a bounce and can be seen as too aggressive)

This opening tries to be quite neutral with Ukraine and Egypt, but is rather Pro-Russian : arranged bounce with Egypt in EME (hoping he won't support his attack), no aggressive move in the Black Sea. Claims BUL, GRE, IRN, but leaves GEO to Russia.

I don't think I would dare to use it in no-press."–William Attia

Turkish Bazaar
Army Istanbul -> Bulgaria.
Fleet Izmir -> Aegean Sea.
Fleet Ankara -> Eastern Black Sea.
Army Adana -> Syria.

This is a strange opening. The move to Syria cannot realistically expect to take Israel without a simultaneous move to the Eastern Med, and so it's only purpose is to pressure Israel and defend Adana. This could both have been done from Irak while allowing Turkey to take Iran. The move to the Eastern Black Sea is similarly bizarre, leaving Turkey open to an attack from the Western Black Sea or even Georgia. It is a surprising move however, which could catch the opponent unawares.

At least Turkey opens classically in the west, with both Bulgaria and Greece sought, but Istanbul may be a better destination for the fleet to give added protection to Istanbul and Bulgaria if needed.

"Ada -> Syria : An interesting choice, if Egypt opens poorly Turkey can take Israel."–Rick Desper

Turkish Strategy

Have you been chosen to play Turkey in a Modern game? Does the position look unfamiliar? What should be your policy towards your neighbours? What SCs should you try to pick up? What should you consider your natural area of influence? I'll take a look at these questions and others below. As usual, you can zip back and forth to player comments on the same subject while you are reading, or just wait until you've finished reading my thoughts before reading theirs.

Initial strategy (see player comments)

With 4 starting units, Turkey has approximately 300 opening moves it can make, not counting openings where one unit issues a HOLD or SUPPORT order. What's more, there are eight neutral supply centers (and five foreign home SCs) her troops can reach in 1995, in various directions, giving Turkey ample choice. She must choose carefully however, as her initial choices will affect the balance of power in the whole of Eastern Europe, by strengthening some of her four neighbours, and weakening others.

The best example of this is probably the decision whether or not to take Georgia in 1995. Georgia is equally contested by Russia's Rostov fleet, but Turkey can make sure to capture it by moving the Adana army to Armenia and then supporting herself in. Taking it increases Turkish security, as Georgia borders Ankara, a Turkish home SC. This also severely weakens Russia's southern presence, making it unlikely that Russia will be a bother to Turkey in the area, but also making it more likely for her to lose Rostov. This therefore strengthens the Ukraine, a power that is more of a threat to Turkey because its northern options are limited by its lack of an Atlantic port. If Turkey does not take Georgia, however, she will gain Russia's initial goodwill. Also, by giving her a strong southern presence, Russia will likely be very tempted to harass Ukraine, giving Turkey a few years of peace to her north if she so desires, and avoiding the deadly U/R alliance. Georgia can always be negotiated back from Russia at a later point, or taken by force if it seems that Russia is going to fall.

If Turkey decides not to contest Georgia, she then has the possibility of using her Ankaran fleet in the Black Sea or Balkans theaters. A Ukrainian fleet in the Western Black Sea is very damaging for Turkey, because it borders two home SCs as well as Bulgaria, a natural Turkish neutral. A Turkish fleet in the WBS is similarly damaging to Ukraine. Turkey therefore has the options of arranging a bounce in the WBS or sneaking in for a superior advanced position vis-à-vis the Ukraine and a shot at Rumania. The last option is to move to Istanbul, from where the fleet can support or take Bulgaria or Greece, a good, balanced position. In that case, it is a good idea to consider HOLDing the army in Adana in the spring. If the Ukraine opens to the Western Black Sea, Turkey will better be able to defend Ankara–otherwise Iran is still there for the taking.

Bulgaria, Greece, Rumania–the Balkans. What is the best strategy in the area? Both Bulgaria and Greece are natural Turkish SCs, bordering on Istanbul. This means that Turkey can get them virtually unchallenged in 1995, but also that she can try for something else instead and probably still get them in 1996. The other SCs Turkey can reach in 1995 are Serbia and Rumania. The first is usually taken by an Italian fleet (though an Italian army could be convoyed there), but Italy can easily be prevented from taking it. It can even be captured if Ukraine helps. Turkey should carefully weigh the consequences of such an action though. Keeping Italy out though will likely be a temporary affair is Turkey is acting alone, as Italy will get Croatia and will be able to support herself into Serbia in the spring of 1996. Italy is also a power that borders both the Ukraine and Egypt, and can help or hinder Turkey in both areas. A solid alliance with Egypt or Ukraine is therefore usually a prerequisite for such an early Turkish move on Serbia, otherwise living with a non-threatening Italian fleet in Serbia is probably fine for Turkey.

Rumania is another matter though. If by some lucky circumstances Turkey finds herself with a fleet in the Western Black Sea in the fall of 1995, as well as an army in Bulgaria, then it is definitely possible to try taking Rumania. Ukraine will then have to choose between defending its home SCs and taking Hungary, or defending Rumania. In any case, Ukraine will be weakened, and Italy could be tempted to take Hungary in 1996 and Russia to move in from the north.

More likely, Turkey will just set her sights on Bulgaria and Greece. The question is then how to take them. Is the army in Istanbul better sent to Bulgaria, or Greece? It seems that the consensus among players (from looking at the openings that they used) is to open to Bulgaria, and take Greece with either of the two fleets. The reason is probably not that Turkey is thinking of moving to Serbia, but rather that moving against Egypt in the south will require many Mediterranean fleets, and putting one in Greece is strategically sound. While this is true, a fleet in Greece is also of little use in the Balkans, as it can neither support Bulgaria, nor move to Macedonia, nor even support actions into the Western Black Sea. Therefore, if the Balkans are the goal, and not Egypt, moving the army to Greece and the fleet to Bulgaria (with support if necessary) seems like the correct thing to do.

Should the Balkans be the goal, however? What of the Mediterranean and the Middle-East? Turkey is in a difficult position, because Egypt can support himself into the Eastern Med in the spring of 1995, threatening two Turkish home SCs. If Egypt does this though, it means that he is giving up Saudi Arabia in 1995, and that Turkey can take it for herself. This flanking attack is the main reason for opening to Irak from Adana. If Saudi Arabia will not be free, Turkey can always bounce Egypt there or take Iran instead. Similarly, Israel can also be threatened by Turkey in 1995 with an opening to Syria, but this seems like an inferior move unless accompanied by a move to the Eastern Med. This is because it is very unlikely that Egypt will not take Israel, and this would leave Turkey with a unit that cannot take an SC, and Turkey needs all the builds it can get in 1995.

What of the fleet in Izmir? An arranged bounce in the Eastern Med is ideal for Turkey. Not only does it provide excellent defense for Turkey, but it also denies Egypt a build while being 'friendly'. This may not be evident at first, but look at Egypt's position, and you will see that there is no way. If an arranged bounce is not possible, then the choices are moving towards Greece (via Istanbul or the Aegean), leaving the Med for Bulgaria (via Istanbul) and a northwards oriented strategy, or moving to Adana. The last move is seldom used, but very interesting as it allows Turkey to have a 50/50 chance of defending her two southern ports even if Egypt opens to the Eastern Med. What is more, it allows Turkey to have three fleets on the Eastern Med in the spring of 1996 after building fleets in both Izmir and Adana.

Midgame and Endgame

If Turkey survives the opening year unattacked, she will be in a good position. The same will happen if only Egypt attacks and Ukraine is distracted by a hopefully long war against Russia or Poland. Turkey's main consideration is then what to do about Egypt. Don't let it be said that an E/T alliance is not possible. There have been two 3-way draws including both powers, and Theo Kermanidis even proposed that such an alliance is a SUPER-ALLIANCE (!!! link to that article, check author name !!!). If done correctly it will avoid the bottlenecks that Turkey and Egypt face–a naval blockade around Sicily, or an wall of iron somewhere in central Europe.

In most cases, Egypt and Turkey will come to blows. You therefore have to decide whether to attack right away, or to ally with Egypt and count on stabbing her before she stabs you. Egypt is a very tough nut to crack, and it might actually be faster to destroy him through a stab when he is busy fighting Italy or Spain than with an early frontal assault. Turkey has more avenues of expansion than Egypt, and so the chances are that there will be a time when Turkey gets builds and Egypt does not. If you do choose to ally, try to negotiate a good deal for yourself in the Eastern Med–either keeping it empty, or putting your own fleet there to convoy his armies. If not possible, then make a stab less attractive by keeping an army or fleet somewhere on your southern coast, so that Egypt cannot be sure a stab will work. And whatever you do, do not allow an Egyptian fleet into the Aegean!

Once Egypt is gone, then what? The main objectives for Turkey should be to get into the Western Med or to capture all Black Sea ports and move into Russia and central Europe. Either way, control of the Balkans is an important piece of the puzzle. Northern attacks can really be helped by sending an Iranian army north to Kazakhstan and then on to the Volga. A convoy to Donbas is likewise quick and effective, as it is usually not defended and borders 3 SCs as well as the Volga. Moving west, an army in Western Sahara is very useful in cutting Algerian fleet supports or moving fleets along the coast, and a convoy to Apulia is likewise very damaging to Italy.

Both of these tasks are helped however if Ukraine (north) and Italy (west) are not around anymore, as it is more likely that other powers will be distracted by closer neighbours than you. One thing to remember though, is that any northern coastal SC - those bordering the Baltic or Arctic Seas - will be very difficult for Turkey to hold. Not being able to immediately access the Caspian or Arabian Seas is not nearly as much of a concern. If Turkey can move quickly up north at the end of the game though and overcome a divided opposition and win, then by all means do so. However moving so far north in the midgame is often a mistake, as Turkey will not be able to hold back a determined counter-attack by Britain or Germany. Better to strive to reach Spain then, for the last SCs needed to take the victory.

Relationship with Other Powers

Turkey's relationship with Egypt has already been covered to some extent above. To working together for the short or long term is possible and could give advantages to both, by letting them get through bottlenecks in the Med, or hitting other opponents when they are unprepared. However, the two will most likely come to blows, and such a battle will normally be a long, protracted affair, which could allow powers in other areas of the board to grow more quickly.

The Ukraine is just as close to Turkey as Egypt is, but unlike Egypt, usually has more pressing problems to deal with than Turkey. This means that an early attack will likely be easy, but also that Turkey can put off the Ukrainian question to later. A U/T alliance can work quite well, at least early on, as both can naturally split the board north/south, with the Black Sea as a DMZ between the two. Unfortunately, Ukraine might realize at some point that it wont be able to hold on to northern coastal SCs, just as Turkey could not, and decide to move south against Turkey instead. How soon this happens, if at all, depends on the Ukrainian player, and if there is a larger threat to the west that will keep the U/T alliance together. The important thing is to make sure that Ukraine does not attack Turkey early in the game, especially if allied with Russia, or worse, Egypt.

A power in a similar position as Ukraine with regards to Turkey is Russia. In some ways however, Russia makes a better ally than Ukraine. Russia is less likely to be a threat on the Black Sea (and might even give Rostov away), and might allow Turkey to control more if not all of the Balkans and some of Ukraine. Most importantly, Russia can build fleets in the north. This means that Russia, unlike Ukraine, will not necessarily be blocked up north and forced to move south against Turkey to continue to grow. This doesn't mean that he won't do so though, and a big Russia can be very dangerous and grow very rapidly. Therefore, if Turkey wants a safe northern ally, Poland may be the best choice. However, Poland is more of a midgame ally, as he cannot help Turkey too much at the start, especially against Ukraine. Better to first ally with Poland and one of the two other Slavic powers to take the other out before turning together on the other.

To the west, the most important power for Turkey is Italy. Together, they are the only neighbours Egypt has, and therefore one of them will be at war with Egypt. It almost seems natural to ally against Egypt. Italy can easily take Libya from Egypt and provide naval help to Turkey. However, if actively helping, he will be likely to want a piece of Egypt, and this will give Turkey some security problems. If Italy moves west instead, then Turkey's war against Egypt will be long and painful, while Italy will possibly grow larger faster, and pose a long-term security threat as well. To complicate matters further, Italy will also definitely be eyeing the whole of the Balkans, just like Turkey and Ukraine, and could help or hinder Turkey there as well. Mutual defense is possible, but active cooperation unlikely. There is therefore no hard and fast rule on how to handle Italy, but staying on good terms early on is usually beneficial for both Italy and Turkey.

When having midgame problems with Italy though, Turkey will hopefully be able to turn to Spain. Each controlling a corner, they can then attack Italy from both sides and crush him together. Luckily, this usually means total control of the Balkans for Turkey. This is not enough for a win however, so Turkey should probably strive to get a part of Italy to be in a position to move beyond Sicily if she gets a chance.

What of the remaining powers? Turkey will have little contact and influence with them in the early game. Britain often attacks Russia in the north however, which can both help or hinder Turkey. Germany and France likewise can attack Italy early on by land, probably making it an also-ran and improving Turkish (and Ukrainian) chances in the Balkans. Finally, France and Britain can attack Italy by sea later in the game, if Spain is not around.

Turkey in General

Turkey is a power with enormous potential. It is the only power with four ports, and sits beside a host of neutral centers. After getting Iran, it will have reached the side of the board, which some powers like Germany and France would very much like to do. It is even reasonably close to a corner and a host of stalemate lines. Turkey also has a good number of directions to move in, and her foes won't necessarily know what to expect. The only thing that Turkey has to do is negotiate with its four neighbours, some more intransigent than others, and either come to a diplomatic solution or take them out militarily. But then again, that is what Diplomacy is all about´┐Ż

Player Comments On Turkey

What should Turkey's initial strategy be?

"Surviving the first year is a real challenge. You must control the Emed and WBS and present an image of strength. Cultivate friendship with Russia and Italy and Poland."–Tom Mowle

"Fend off Ukraine while sitting on Egypt. Try to make friends with Italy and Russia."–Rick Desper

"As for any power, survive the first few years and grow enough so that it could pretend to a draw (or a solo). More precisely : make sure it is not crushed between Egypt and a northern (Ukraine, perhaps Russia ?) power."–William Attia

"The first action should be to DMZ the Black Sea with Ukraine, and get rid of the Russian fleet there."–Ran Shlomo

"My small experience in Modern tells me that I always have to look carefully at Egypt when I'm playing Turkey. I have to have a strategy for Egypt."–Mikael Akerlund

How would you win as Turkey?

"You have to fight a two-front war. Pummel Egypt until he is pushed out of the Middle East, then pin him down until he falls or you get help from the West. Control the Black Sea and the real Balkans; obliterate the Ukrainian and Russian navies. Move up the Adriatic and Volga. Reestablish the old Ottoman Empire, then try to break out across North Africa."–Tom Mowle

"I would attack Egypt quickly before he could defend himself, and before Ukraine organizes an attack. I would put the pressure on to crack Egypt, while holding Ukraine at bay and trying to make sure Russia and Italy are friendly. Once Egypt falls, Turkey has about 12 Scs to work with. At that point, push through the Balkans. One must either make a major breakthrough to the North or a minor breakthrough to the North, combined with a major breakthrough to the West. Turkey has a great tactical position (the best on the board, really) so there is a good shot of getting this done."–Rick Desper

"1. Ally with Ukraine to get rid of the Russian fleet in Black Sea, and DMZ the Black Sea

2. Go for Egypt (probably with Italy)

3. Using your fleets in the Eastern Med, stab Italy and reach for Tunisia/Rome/Venice

4. March through the Balkans

5. Stab Ukraine (which must be distracted somewhere else) and rush through it to Russia (maybe Poland)

6. Count your SCs and win

Turkey (4) + Egypt (3) + Ukraine (4) + Middle-East (3) + Balkans (6)
+ NAP,ROM,VEN (3) + TUN,LIB (2) + GEO (1) + ROS,MOS,GOR (3)
+ BIE,WAR,KRA (3) + AUS or CZE (1) = 33

Hmm... even in my dreams I cannot imagine that could be real."–William Attia

What are Turkey's strengths?

"A lot of centers in easy reach. Rivals who cannot easily support each other–the most they can do is coordinate attacks. A position that does not look very threatening to anyone but Egypt and maybe Ukraine–but even Ukraine has bigger rivals."–Tom Mowle

"A great nation to play - very strong at the beginning with 4 centres and lots of potential for early expansion. If the other players don't get their acts together, Turkey can rampage through a game to get an early solo victory."–Toby Tyrrell

"Turkey has access to a lot of SCs, and has the ability to build a lot of forces at once. Turkey can build two Black Sea fleets at the same time, or build three Med fleets at the same time. If Turkey manages to take out Egypt, he can assume a minority stalemate line easily."–Rick Desper

"Well-balanced between land and sea power. Numerous supply centers nearby (Balkans, Ukraine)."–William Attia

What are Turkey's weaknesses?

"Too many spaces to defend at once. You need to be both skilled and lucky to survive. Later, the main weakness is the bottlenecks in the Central Med and Central Europe that will probably plugged before you can get there."–Tom Mowle

"The main disadvantage to Turkey is the lack of corner security, which can however be rectified if Egypt is taken out. Turkey is susceptible to attack by an alliance between Egypt and Ukraine, but is otherwise fairly robust."–Toby Tyrrell

"The big weakness is the early vulnerability, especially to Egypt."–Rick Desper

"Position (between Egypt, Ukraine, Italy, and maybe Russia)."–William Attia

Does Turkey have an advantageous or disadvantageous starting position?

"The opening position is a nightmare. There is no way to prevent Egypt from putting a fleet into the Eastern Med. If you challenge the Med and lose, the Izmir fleet cannot gain a center; if you go for Greece, you risk Egypt gaining an extra center. Georgia will usually be contested by Russia, while two fleets look across the Black Sea at you. HOWEVER, if you can survive the first year, then the Anatolian Peninsula nicely separates the two theatres. Your potential rivals are unlikely to be able to help each other move closer to you, and only Egypt has a free shot at you. If you look weak, you will be an easy target. If you look tough, then neighbors will turn to other targets. With not only a corner but a series of stalemate lines in reach, Turkey is hard to kill later in the game."–Tom Mowle

"Middling."–Rick Desper

"See above : disadvantageous. Turkey must prevent U/E from allying if it wants to survive. EME is gained by Egypt if Egypt really wants it and this threatens 2 home SCs. However, the Russian fleet in ROS can be of some help against U."–William Attia

"Turkey's initial strategic position looks initially ideal. Surrounded by neutral supply centers, Turkey can usually count on 3 builds the opening year. This initial advantage, however, is offset by some soon to develop serious problems that Turkey must face in the second year, if they were not resolved in the first year."–Robert Shepard

"I believe that Turkey has a good starting position, among the best on the Modern board, but Egypt is the problem. Egypt will be either an ally or an enemy, so first try to check if he's a friend or a foe."–Mikael Akerlund

What are the three most important spaces on the board for Turkey?

"1. WBS. It borders two home centers and a natural neutral, and two Ukrainian centers and a natural Ukrainian neutral. Lose it, and your defense is hopeless. 2. Eastern Med. It borders two home centers, two Egyptian home centers, and a neutral. 3. Alexandria. If you can turn the corner and take it, you are well on your way to assuring your survival to the end."–Tom Mowle

"1) Eastern Med, 2) West Black Sea, 3) Greece. Turkey must control Greece, even if he does not control Bulgaria."–Rick Desper

"EME : a must for any attack on Turkey from the Med (either E or I), and it's adjacent to IZM and ADA (+ ANA : a convoy to ANA is painful)

WBS : borders 2 HSCs too (IST, ANK), as well as BUL, a natural Turkish center

IST : if it is lost, a single enemy will be able to send fleets both in the Med and in the Black Sea --> Turkey is doomed."–William Attia

Are there any stalemate lines which Turkey can use to her advantage?

"Yes, unlike most powers. See the Modern homepage for several expanding lines from Alexandria through the Balkans to Russia."–Tom Mowle

"Of course! These have already been detailed in the stalemate article on the Modern homepage!"–Rick Desper

"A CAU S A ROS; A ROS H; A IRN H. This blocks Turkey's backdoor against an attack from a northern power without access to the Black Sea (most likely to be Russia, as ROS is assumed Turkish; or Poland in the late game). There is a useful 11 or 12 SCs line with Turkey and Egypt too."–William Attia

Are there any bottlenecks Turkey must seek to avoid?

"By the time you eliminate Egypt, someone has probably locked up Tunisia-Tyrrhenian Sea-Sicily. That will be very difficult to get through. A unit in Bosnia can also cause no end of trouble to attempts to move through the Balkans."–Tom Mowle

"A potential block to Turkish ambitions is a middle game blocking of the Med at Tunis/TYS/Naples."–Toby Tyrrell

"Not really."–Rick Desper

Are there any areas on the board Turkey should not venture because of lack of fleet support; and, if so, any suggestions on how to handle this?

"Scandinavia? Seriously, until the Endgame, Turkey is unlikely to end up anywhere that lack of fleet support will be a problem (the Baltic Coast, Portugal, etc.). It has easy access to all seas it needs."–Tom Mowle

"Turkey can get fleets anywhere he wants to, for the most part."–Rick Desper

"Northern Russia and Poland (GDA, LIT, STP, MUR). Numerous armies might help, but won't probably be enough.

In the Med (and further in the Atlantic, but that's unlikely), fleets and armies should be able to go at the same pace. A fleet in ADR could be useful to get the Balkans, though it may not be easy to obtain."–William Attia

What is the single most important piece of advice you would give a Turkish player?

"You must control the seas around you. Control them and you cannot lose. Lose them, and you are dead."–Tom Mowle

"Grab SCs in bunches. Turkey must grow quickly."–Rick Desper

"Beware Egypt !"–William Attia

"More than many other powers, I think Turkey's success depends on the degree of freedom she receives from her neighbors in the first year. Other nations can afford to expand more gradually, but a Turkey any smaller than 7 or 8 SCs after two years will begin to look too tempting for her neighbors to ignore. Especially with the cache of Balkan SCs she borders."–Mike Morzinski

How much of an army does Turkey need?

"Turkey needs a balanced approach. Need a few more fleets first, but you need an army to keep pressure on the Middle East and Ukraine. Any further movement into Russia and the Balkans needs armies, so later you might tilt a bit towards the land. Convoys are a big help."–Tom Mowle

"This depends a lot. At least two armies in the Balkans, and two in the Middle East. Might have to drop to 1 on one of the fronts."–Rick Desper

"Quite much, but I think Turkey should try to dominate the seas first. Some armies are needed to defend the Balkans and attack Egypt though, so I would say slightly more than half of the troops should be armies."–William Attia

"Self-Immolation: A Ist-Bul; F Izm-Aeg; F Ank-EBS; A Ada-Arm

So named because it counts upon Egyptian friendship and results in self-immolation when you are wrong!"–Paul Rosenzweig

How important is the Middle-East to Turkey and how should it be handled?

"Ultimately, you need to dominate the Middle East to win. Early, however, focus on Israel and the Egyptian heartland, picking off Iran and Saudi as you are able. You can't afford an enemy army in Iran or any other territory bordering Adana. An Egyptian fleet in Iran or Saudi is ineffective, as long as you have not conceded the whole region to Egypt."–Tom Mowle

"It is very important. Turkey should consider first taking Iran and walking that army Southward. It's very bad to let Egypt move a fleet through the Red Sea and push armies up this side."–Rick Desper

"It's the land part of the E/T war, thus should not be neglected (whether you attack Egypt, of course, or Egypt attacks you, as fleets alone would have quite a long time breaking you down). Once you get it and Egypt, you've got a corner position."–William Attia

What is the strategic importance of the Caucasus (the area between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea) and how should it be handled?

"There is an easy stalemate line in Caucasus-Rostov. If allied with Russia, give ground in the Caucasus early to help him hold off Poland and Ukraine, then take it back when he is stronger."–Tom Mowle

"Important in a war with Russia (which is something to avoid in the early game)."–Rick Desper

"During an attack on Ukraine (or Russia ? most unlikely), it should help to send a few armies through. Otherwise, it should be enough to block it to prevent northern armies from coming."–William Attia

What is the strategic importance of the Balkans and how should it be handled?

"You cannot win without the Balkans, but early on you just need to make sure no one else dominates it. A split of Bulgaria and Greece for Turkey, Rumania and Hungary for Ukraine, and Serbia and Croatia for Italy is fair. Keep fleets in Serbia and Rumania so there are no cross-Balkan attacks. When ready to break out, a combined arms approach using the Adriatic can pay off."–Tom Mowle

"Turkey wants at least Greece and Bulgaria. It's important to get the Italian fleet in Serbia, if only because that means there is no hostile army in Serbia threatening Bulgaria. It's bad to let either Italy or Ukraine have free reign."–Rick Desper

What is the strategic importance of Central Europe and how should it be handled?

"Central Europe is part of the way to a win, but it will take a while to get there. As in the Balkans, just keep the other powers balanced if you can."–Tom Mowle

"Not very important, except that this front will determine whether Turkey can get from 25 to 33 SCs. Balkans (CRO, SER, GRE, BUL, RUM, HUN) should be cut into 3 parts between Italy (CRO, SER), Turkey (GRE, BUL) and Ukraine (RUM, HUN) after a year or two. The Turkish part is probably less vulnerable thanks to the buffer zone of ALB and MAC, but it allows less expansion too for the same reason. GRE is highly vulnerable from the sea, too. "–Rick Desper

"I don't think that Turkey can really do well in the Balkans. Just get your share and let Italy and Ukraine (plus sometimes Poland/Germany) battle each other. Of course, once you get Ukraine, you should get RUM too, if not HUN. But that may need many armies that could be handy further north (Russia)."–William Attia

What are Turkey's interests in North Africa (Mor/Alg/Tun/Lib) and what should be Turkish policy with regards to it?

"As with the others, you need to avoid dominance by any other power. Give Libya to Italy in exchange for help with Egypt. To get past Libya, you need armies moving deeper in the Sahara. Tunisia is tough to take from the East without help. Morocco and Tunisia probably aren't worth the effort–go for Italy first."–Tom Mowle

"If Turkey can get Spain, France, or Italy to push armies through Africa toward Egypt, so much the better."–Rick Desper

"Turkey cannot pretend to any of these before Egypt is out. It should try to encourage their owners (Spain/Italy/possibly Britain too, although an army is needed) to go towards Egypt.

Even if allied with Egypt, Turkey cannot ask Tunisia, as it stands right in Egypt's way."–William Attia

How much of a navy does Turkey need?

"Initially, emphasize sea power to control the surrounding spaces. Then back off later a bit, but you still will need fleets to convoy unless you are running for the Baltic and Central Europe."–Tom Mowle

"Big."–Rick Desper

"Less than half of Turkish forces, but more than a third, should be fleets. Two main goals: control of the Black Sea, and control of the Eastern Med (not EME, but the whole region)."–William Attia

Which is more important to Turkey - the Black Sea or the Med? Why?

"Both. Defensively, I guess the Black Sea is a tiny bit more important because its two spaces touch six centers you probably want to take yourself. If you lose WBS, you risk your home centers; defending them you lose Bulgaria and then Greece. At least the EastMed/Aegean/Ionian only hit four centers. But you don't want to lose either. Offensively, though, you will need to go through the Med to get far into the Balkans or North Africa. The Black Sea just becomes a bus route."–Tom Mowle

"Neither is more important. Turkey has to have both sides friendly. A fleet in the WBS threatens 3 Turkish SCs (including Bulgaria), one in the Eastern Med threatens 2, while EBS threatens 1 (but Georgia is also a problem). This would seem to indicate WBS is more important, but it is easier to use the Eastern Med for convoys against Turkey. Also, Ukraine is often distracted by other powers, while the same cannot be said of Egypt."–Rick Desper

"Both are important. Good question, though..."–William Attia

"Of the two problems, I believe the northern one should be your priority, as it will be decided in the first year, perhaps in the first turn. The southern problem can be stalled for at least a year, and two if you're lucky. I think this the ideal strategy for Turkey, to settle the northern issue firmly in the first year, stick with that decision, and commit half of your units to it. Stall the Egyptian question as long as possible. Play if very cool with your units, no sudden moves, but make it your priority at the negotiation table. Work hard behind the scenes."–Robert Shepard

What should Turkish goals and policy be in the Mediterranean?

"Get to the Alexandria-Ionian stalemate lines. The first move in the EastMed is vital–lose there and you are living on Egyptian goodwill. That is why an aggressive land move, to deny Egypt a Middle Eastern center if possible, is very helpful."–Tom Mowle

"Early planning must take into account a decision about what to do with the East Med, a key space between Egypt and Turkey."–Toby Tyrrell

"Control and Growth."–Rick Desper

"Turkey must prevent Egypt from being the dominant eastern naval power. That is, EME should be made a DMZ or Turkish sea. AEG is definitely Turkish, but ION and ADR could be Turkish too if Italy is distracted by a western naval power (Spain/France/Britain). That should allow control of the Balkans. Basically, if a western power and Turkey could ally to eliminate Italian and Egyptian pretensions in the area, that should be good."–William Attia

"Turkey should gain quick and immediate control of the MED seas."–Ran Shlomo

What should Turkish goals and policy be in the Black Sea?

"Ultimate goal: Kill Ukraine and control Rostov. You then have nothing to worry about from the north and can ferry armies across at will. Until then, try to work bounces with Ukraine. Both of you will worry more about WBS than EBS, so it could work. You also want to avoid having a second Russian fleet there. It is worth giving the Ukrainian ports to Russia if it will get you Rostov and security."–Tom Mowle

"It is easier, perhaps, to DMZ the Black."–Rick Desper

"Either DMZ it with Ukraine (and eliminate Russia) or get Russian help against Ukraine (and control WBS, DMZing the EBS). Russia should not be allowed to build fleets in ROS. Ukraine's builds should be restricted too (2 fleets are enough if allied with Turkey), while Turkey should engage not to build fleets in ANK."–William Attia

"One of my major mid to short-term goals is control of the Black Sea and surrounding SC's. With Russia's and Ukraine's naval capabilities destroyed, I would hold a very defensible position in the North and would then be able to concentrate my resources in the Balkans and the Med."–Mike Morzinski

"To the north lies Ukraine and Russia, and the Black Sea just isn't big enough for three powers, and is still crowded with two."–Robert Shepard

"I believe that Turkey first of all must secure the Black Sea region, then turn south against Egypt. If Ukraine is under attack from other neighbours - that's even better. P/R/T can easily eliminate Ukraine in the first three years."–Mikael Akerlund

What is the importance of the Caspian Sea and how should it be handled?

"If you are worrying about it, you probably have bigger problems. Russia's not likely to throw a fleet that way unless it already controls the Black Sea; even more so for Ukraine. Likewise, if you need the Caspian to defend/attack Iran against Egypt, you're losing the war, Jack. I've yet to see a modern game where the Caspian was entered, but I'm sure it has happened."–Tom Mowle
(Vince: Yes it has, I've even seen a game where Italy has gotten 2 fleets into the Caspian area. But both Ukraine and Russia have as well).

"It is relatively unimportant. If Russia or Ukraine has the freedom to push a fleet to the Caspian, it will be difficult to hold Iran. But Iran is only 1 SC, and all that this control will do is pay for the fleet which is in the Caspian Sea."–Rick Desper

"Little. With contempt."–William Attia

What is the importance of the southeastern seas (Red, Arabian, Persian Gulf) and how should they be handled?

"Early on, any Egyptian fleet out there is one less that you have to worry about coming after you. If Egypt wants to park a fleet in Iran, fine. Later, however, you must control Cairo and keep nuisance fleets out of there. If you make a deal with Italy to split Egypt, make sure you get Cairo in the deal."–Tom Mowle

"Well, Turkey cannot "handle" anything down there unless he takes Cairo."–Rick Desper

"Not much greater than the Caspian. Maybe a fleet there can be useful for a few seasons, to chase an Egyptian unit, but by this time Turkey should have numerous fleets in the Med anyway."–William Attia

Comment on Turkey's relationship with Egypt:

"I don't think they can be allies very easily. The potential for a stab (on either side) is too great. In theory, the two could split sea/land and move northwest in parallel. But I don't know how you establish the trust needed. So, they should not usually be allies. If you are certain that Ukraine and Russia are going to team up against you, then it is worth taking a chance on Egypt.

You can't let an Egyptian fleet into the Eastern Med (unless you are capturing Cairo in a fall turn and gaining multiple builds). It borders two of your home centers. So watch out for any time that Egypt can force the Emed. Unfortunately, the game starts that way.

Attacking Egypt early on is advantageous. Once Egypt secures Israel, Libya, and Saudi, he is going to look your way. You are better off limiting him to four or five units, hopefully with two of them out of position in the Indian Ocean or North Africa. Furthermore, a Turkey locked into a fight with Egypt will look less threatening to Italy, Russia, etc."–Tom Mowle

"There is a great advantage to a _successful_ early attack of Egypt. A stalemate is no good. Can they be allies? It seems unlikely. What does Egypt do after taking Libya and Tunisia? Does he commit 6 forces to try to invade Italy? If he does, he will be wide open to a Turkish stab. Most Egypts will instead fight Turkey. If this happens, it is important that Egypt be the only enemy."–Rick Desper

"Ally with Egypt ? Either he is very naive, or you are. Allying with Egypt means that your naval goals in the Med will be reduced (as he should get Italy), so you will have to attack in the Balkans and in the north. You won't have many fleets, then, so it will be hard to stab and to protect against a stab.

However, if it is to be tried, EME should be an absolute DMZ, or you should do your best to get it (and provide convoys when Egypt need them, as if your fleet was proxied to him). In this case, you could try to go for Italy together (he would get Italy proper and Tunisia,while you would get the Balkans; you should find a northern ally against Ukraine to make this go right...)

Otherwise, watch out for an Egyptian fleet in EME ! Egyptian fleets anywhere, indeed. The whole Egypt, indeed. The best thing you should do is try and ally with Italy to hunt Egypt. It will be long, but you will need it, otherwise Egypt will always remain a thorn in your side."–William Attia

"You must be the single-minded foe of all things Egyptian! Do whatever is necessary to destroy Egypt and gain the coveted SE corner of the board. In Modern Diplomacy, Egypt is to Turkey as Turkey is to Austria-Hungary in Standard Diplomacy - a mortal enemy with whom coexistence is next to impossible. Fortunately for the Turkish player, Turkey in Modern isn't nearly as vulnerable as Austria-Hungary in Standard. Your first priority must be to destroy the Egyptian."–Andrew F. Heil

"The relationship with Egypt feels pretty much the same as Austria-Turkey in standard diplomacy. What I'm saying is that I think peace between Egypt and Turkey is very difficult, if not impossible in no-press, and one of us will soon be dead."–Anders Bondensson

"Egypt would make a good ally in the first half of the game. Towards the end he would begin to feel that a stab would be more profitable than the alliance, I believe, but I could just stab first when the time comes."–Mike Morzinski

"To the south lies Egypt. With Egypt's proximity, you must decide right away to make him a friend or foe. If friend, help him to attack Italy, if foe, get Italy to help attack him. The really tricky thing about it is that with Egypt, the first year usually involves gently picking up Libya, Israel, and Saudi Arabia, all without disturbing anyone else, all without having to commit to anything concrete. If Egypt is a foe, an opening of F Izmir -> Eastern Mediterranean is especially devastating to Egypt, since this threatens three centers, and Egypt's smaller starting size makes her particularly vulnerable in the beginning. This move however fully commits Turkey to total war with Egpyt, and requires peace in the north to be effective. If Egypt is a friend, he can make a natural ally as well, giving him primary control of the seas and attacking Italy's homeland, while you gobble up the Balkans."–Robert Shepard

"The key is to get Egypt thinking that you are working together, and to be friendly the first year. I always try to be friendly the first year, so that I can change all my initial plans if things go wrong (as they often do). If I can't get help in the north I (when I play Turkey), I will have to ally Egypt (just as you described in the article about Egypt), but I would not be content having someone behind my back (as Egypt would always be building units behind the Turkish lines.

In nopress games I believe that Turkey *must* pay attention to Egypt."–Mikael Akerlund

Comment on Turkey's relationship with Ukraine:

"The Ukrainian situation is not much better than the Egyptian. There is some hope, however, in that Turkey can move southwest and Ukraine north with less danger of stab. Ukraine would have armies only and Turkey would have fleets in the Med. Ukraine and Turkey can't help each other much though. Maybe in the Balkans they could unite against Italy. So an alliance can initially work, but ultimately Russia or Poland make a much better choice.

Watch out for additional fleets in the Black Sea. Bounce in the WBS. That is equally critical to both sides, so it should hold. I'd focus on Egypt first, just since Egypt is likely to come after you. Ukraine will probably be tied up with Poland and/or Russia. If Ukraine does well in that, however, you need to attack."–Tom Mowle

"T/U is a good alliance, if Ukraine can hold back from building fleets. They have common room to grow on two fronts, and they can work jointly in the Balkans against Italy. Perhaps T's best choice for an ally."–Rick Desper

"They could be allies, or at least it's easier than with Egypt. Together, they can eliminate the Russian fleet in ROS, share ROS and GEO, and then each of them can go on his way : Turkey (with I) against Egypt, and Ukraine against Russia (with P or B).

Turkey should watch Ukraine's fleets. He shouldn't have more than 2 (parked in coastal provinces such as DON and RUM, possibly SEV to prevent further builds?). That should make it easier to stab him later by a surprise build in IST and ANK (plus one fleet that would have remained nearby).

Attacking Ukraine is an option to be considered, provided that Egypt is peaceful and Russia (or Poland) is cooperative. If eliminated, Turkey can claim the whole Black Sea and convoy through it to Ukraine's territories, then go north."–William Attia

"This is an alliance made in heaven. The Ukrainian will have much better things to do in the north than give Turkey any problems. If Ukraine allies with Poland against Russia (as is common, especially in no-press games), then it should be a simple matter for you to gain Georgia while Ukraine takes Rostov. Then DMZ the Black Sea and go about your respective businesses - Ukraine to the north and Turkey to the south, to exterminate the Egyptian."–Andrew F. Heil

"In my opinion, Turkey should ally with Ukraine, and act together quickly and strongly."–Ran Shlomo

"Because Ukraine has two home SC's on the Black Sea, I don't see any sort of stable alliance forming between Turkey and Ukraine."–Mike Morzinski

"For Ukraine, the Black Sea provides the only sea access, and while in the short run this is no problem, this always provides long term difficulties."–Robert Shepard

Comment on Turkey's relationship with Italy:

"Italy and Turkey can be allies in that they will have difficulty getting at one another. Both can grow at similar rates, so they can appreciate each other. Short-term this can focus on eliminating Egypt. It is a lot easier with a fleet in the Libyan Sea. Long term, they can work a vertical division of the continent, based on the Alexandria to Adriatic stalemate line. Potentially, they could split the board evenly and both have other, more appropriate enemies.

Italian friendship with Egypt or Ukraine would be bad, but Italy would be unlikely to gain much from that. Be nice to Italy and let him deal with France, Spain, and Germany. Ask Italy to put a fleet in Serbia. If Turkey keeps no more than one army in the Balkans, both will be safe. You also need to keep the Ionian DMZd, except for occasional passage. An early war with Italy is death for Turkey."–Tom Mowle

"If T can convince Italy to take Libya and press on Alexandria, this is good. Turkey can offer support against Ukraine, if desired. There is not much advantage to an invasion of the boot early, though if Italy is in trouble, Turkey might want to grab Serbia and Croatia (as well as Greece)."–Rick Desper

"They can ally to get rid of Egypt (and perhaps on Ukraine afterwards?), but it will limit Turkish fleet (to a much more reasonable size than if allied with Egypt). It will be hard to win without Italian centers, but a 3-way draw (S/F/B + IT, with vertical spheres of influence) should be feasible.

Otherwise, Italy can be an easy target for a Turkey which has already conquered Egypt, along with another sea power like Spain. But that's not the case at the beginning.

Note that Greece can be tempting for Italy..."–William Attia

"Turkey needs to hinder Italian growth in the Balkans while the Egyptian problem is resolved, trying to assure the Italy does not grow too large for Turkey to confront in the Mid-game. A Ukrainian ally can be most useful in this regard as you help each other to gains that are important more for what they deny to Italy than for what they reap you, the Turkish player."–Andrew F. Heil

"Also important to consider is if both Italy and yourself destroy Egypt, where will both your forces go afterwards? You must either fight each other or both completely turn your momentum around, and this creates obvious difficulty."–Robert Shepard

Comment on Turkey's relationship with Russia:

"I think they are natural allies. If they can break out, they can emulate the classic Juggernaut. Neither has much to gain from attacking each other early, but all to gain from moving west in tandem. They cannot attack each other very easily, and both need allies.

You don't want a Russian buildup in the South though. Initially, you might as well give up Georgia. Turkey has plenty of other early targets and nothing builds friendship like conceding a center. One way to do this is for Russia to block a Ukrainian move to the EBS in the spring, then move to Georgia in the fall. Later, however, it would be ideal if Russia could be convinced to give up Rostov and Georgia. There is an easy mutual land stalemate line (Kaz-Vol-Don v. Irn-Cau-Ros) there. If you then help Russia destroy Ukraine, you can clear the Black Sea of fleets."–Tom Mowle

"T/R can be allies against Ukraine. They can put both fleets offshore pretty quickly, and press on both fronts. It's not bad."–Rick Desper

"I can see two radically distinct choices: either ally with Russia against Ukraine, or ally with Ukraine against Russia. I would prefer the first option, as you would be able to stab in southern Russia right after. This would net you GEO and ROS quite quickly, even more if you convoyed a few armies through the Black Sea to seize Ukrainian centers.

I think I would give GEO to Russia anyway, in the beginning, in exchange for further supports in the Black Sea, and provided he agrees not to build fleets in Rostov (which should seem logical to him). These centers (GEO/ROS) should not be very well defended afterwards, so they can be taken quite easily."–William Attia

"The RT would be a good combination as well, although there wouldn't be a lot of interaction early in the game since Russia will likely be more concerned with the Northern end of her front."–Mike Morzinski

"Russia will almost always demand Georgia to strengthen her southern presence, especially since you have all those other neutral supply centers around you. Russia can easily make a good argument for it, and yet you certainly don't want a foreign fleet right next to your homeland. So the dilemma is who to trust. If Russia will let you have Georgia, take it and promise him anything to help fight Ukraine. On the other hand, an opening of F Ankara -> Georgia and A Adana -> Armenia will bounce the Russians the first turn, you can support yourself in the next, and pick up Iran the next year. Ultimately your negotiations will decide, but it is a problem that must be dealt with right away, otherwise a Russian - Ukraine alliance might develop, and that is the worst possible scenario."–Robert Shepard

Comment on Turkey's relationship with Poland:

"Poland makes a great ally. Turkey and Poland can help each other take out Russia and Ukraine. They should ally if both survive the early years. Neither can do much to help the other if in trouble. Things could get testy in the Balkans, but that is about it. They should exchange information, manipulate Russia and Ukraine, and kill both if possible. But Ukraine should be the first target, if possible."–Tom Mowle

"Turkey should make sure that Poland goes East (this should not be tough). If Poland attacks Ukraine, this can be very good for Turkey. A P/U alliance is much less good for Turkey."–Rick Desper

"Basically, a TP long-term alliance should work against Russia and Ukraine. It could result from Ukraine being allied with both T and P, and then being stabbed by both simultaneously. However, their fleets cannot help each other, as they can't expect to reach the Atlantic soon."–William Attia

Comment on Turkey's relationship with Spain:

"Another good ally. Together they could dominate the Med, splitting the basin and Italy, although like with Poland they can't help each other much. The fate of Libya and Venice are important. You don't want Spanish fleets past Sicily, but you may need Spanish help to take out Egypt. Together, strive to keep Egypt and Italy from getting too strong, too fast. Exchange information."–Tom Mowle

"If Turkey can get Spain to push armies through Africa, that is great. Otherwise, there's not much to say."–Rick Desper

"Spain and Turkey could share the domination of the Med, with a boundary like TYS/MAL. It assumes that Turkey gets Egypt, the Middle-East, most of the Balkans, Libya and part of Italy, while Spain probably controls the south of France, Morocco and Tunisia, and most of Italy.

Spain should be prevented from sending too many fleets eastwards. A northern naval threat can be useful (either B or G, generally). Anyway, I don't think Turkey can reach the Spanish coasts, without even speaking of the Atlantic."–William Attia

Comment on Turkey's relationship with Germany, France and Britain:

"Just stay friendly with everyone, and if there is going to be pressure, throw it at Italy. Long-term, any of them will work as an ally. Short-term, it doesn't much matter. You don't need early domination by any of them, especially penetration into the Balkans or past Sicily. Exchange information. France is probably the most likely to cause trouble, because it has access both to the Med and the Balkans."–Tom Mowle

"Typically, this is only of marginal importance."–Rick Desper

"Apart from information exchange, I can't see how they could be useful. France is usually a weak naval power in the Med, but could possibly fulfill the Spanish role against Italy if Spain is out (probably with Britain's help). Germany could help to make some decisions in the western Balkans. It can play the same role as Poland, where a Germany/Turkey boundary can run through the northern Balkans and Russia, if P, R and U are out. Why not? Britain, as France, can be a naval power in the Med, strong enough to distract Italy in some rare cases. It could also help Turkey to finish Poland and/or Russia (getting the coastal centers, while Turkey gets the inland ones)."–William Attia

Vincent Mous
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